Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Parathyroid diseases are a group of disorders that affect the parathyroid glands’ function, which regulates the body’s calcium and phosphorus levels. There is growing evidence that parathyroid diseases may be associated with metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a possible association between parathyroid diseases and metabolic syndrome. Hyperparathyroidism and secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, while hypoparathyroidism is associated with hypocalcemia-induced metabolic abnormalities. Further studies are needed better to understand the relationship between parathyroid diseases and metabolic syndrome and to develop effective treatment strategies. Hyperparathyroidism is a common parathyroid disease characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathormone plays a crucial role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. However, excessive PTH secretion can lead to hypercalcemia, which can cause metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Studies have shown that patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have a higher metabolic syndrome prevalence than the general population. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is another parathyroid disease in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic kidney disease leads to impaired renal function, which results in decreased vitamin D synthesis and increased PTH secretion. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with bone mineral disorders and cardiovascular disease. Studies have also shown that secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.