Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is increasing in the world especially among poor countries and it has many varieties of manifestation and disease including rickets in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adult. It also can affect on functional of some organ like renal and cardiovascular system and even has effect on mortality rate of some of these patients. Inadequate vitamin D in food regimen is one of reasons of hypovitaminosis D. The production of active form of this vitamin mainly is located in kidney cells, therefore end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients or patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD), have high chance for low serum level of the active form of this vitamin. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy which are important side effect of CKD, be happen because of deficiency and defect in absorption of this vitamin. According to rapid increase in the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, the aim of this review article is to summarize some of investigation about hypovitaminosis D especially among patients who have CKD.
Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education
Vitamin D deficiency is an important public health problem
because the low level of vitamin D in the blood is a risk
factor for some severe diseases, such as cancer, heart disease,
fractures and falls etc. Vitamin D is also an important factor
in the prevention and treatment of some skeletal and nonskeletal
diseases. Skeletal diseases include rickets in children,
osteoporosis, osteomalacia (known with bone pain) and
bone loss in people with hyperparathyroidism. Non-skeletal
diseases include high blood pressure and high cholesterol,
diabetes, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis,
premenstrual syndrome (PMS), autoimmune diseases
and cancers. Because there are many obstacles to sunshine
exposure, including usage of sunscreen, hats, and other skin
covers, decreased hours of sun exposure during aging and
the winter; therefore, we can see a prompt increase in the
number of people with vitamin D deficiency.
Please cite this paper as: Borji S, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Vitamin D and its importance on public health. J Parathyr Dis. 2016;4(1):20-24.