J Parathyr Dis. 2020;8: e01.
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Average levels of vitamin D in different continents

Mahzad Irandoust 1 ORCID logo, Hashem Nayeri 1* ORCID logo, Hossein Irandoust 2 ORCID logo

1 Department of Biochemistry, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Agricultural Research, Education and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Isfahan, Iran.
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding author: Hashem Nayeri, Email: , Email: hnaieri@gmail.com


Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble hormone precursor that enters the body through food and nutritional supplements. Vitamin D has two important forms which are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). This vitamin is activated in the body through two hydroxylation reactions and produces calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), which is its active form. The metabolites and other analogues of these substances also refer to vitamin D. Vitamin D plays a significant physiological and essential role in maintaining the levels of extracellular calcium ions. The most important role of extracellular calcium is its contribution to muscle contractions. Around 10% to 20% of vitamin D is supplied by the foods. Vitamin D sources include salmon, cod liver oil, wild mushroom, milk, and meat and also egg yolk. However, 80% of vitamin D comes from sunlight. Vitamin D has an important role in the process of bone metabolism, regulation of proliferation and cellular differentiation, as well as the regulation of immune responses. The purpose of this review article is to study the importance of vitamin D and its use in the body as well as examining the vitamin D levels in different continents.

Please cite this paper as: Irandoust M, Nayeri H, Irandoust H . Average levels of vitamin D in different continents. J Parathyr Dis. 2020;8:e01
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Submitted: 27 Feb 2019
Accepted: 07 Aug 2019
ePublished: 20 Aug 2019
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